Throughout history, Africa has been a site for globalization which is best defined as the integration of world views. During the nineteenth century, the second age of globalization, many indigenous resistance movements emerged targeting European colonizers. However, some indigenous African groups allied with Europeans to consolidate power. During this period, Africa saw the construction of railroads, which expanded trade for Europeans and forced Africans into labour. Europe's colonization of Africa affected the continent in drastic ways. Not only did European colonizers take Africa's precious resources, they tried to devalue their very identities, which caused resistance. Some uprisings were successful while others failed.